Homo sapiens Subspecies

In Brief

"No race is superior, no race is inferior – they are all just a bit different.. -- Stefan Molyneux


Subspecieism is the belief that all modern Homo sapiens are not the same. Subspeciests believe that there is vast diversity among modern humans and that that diversity ought to be celebrated, even encouraged. 

Roots of Subspecieism

"Linneus... an 18th century Swedish botanist who took it upon himself to categorize every single living being on the planet...  and he did a pretty good job... he actually coined the phrase homo sapien. But looking around the world at the diversity of humans he said, well you know, we seem to come in discreet subspecies or categories." -- Geneticist, Anthropologist Spencer Wells,  TED Global 2007


Modern Subspecieists follow in the footsteps of many of the great 18th and 19th century anthropologists and naturalists including Darwin, Linneus, Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton and the more contemporary Carleton Coon, James Watson (Watson and Crick) and Robert Ardrey.  


Their views fell out of favor for some 60 years, starting in the late 1940s. James Watson for example,the co-founder of DNA, was shunned and accused of "racism" for suggesting varied degrees of intelligence in differing ethnic groups. (The Guardian 2007).


But now it's come nearly full circle. Newly un-earthed fossil evidence along with genetics research is confirming the views of the old guard anthropologists. Still, few have received their due.

 

Modern Human Diversity

Ethnic Europeans

Genetics experts such as Swedish biologist Dr. Svante Pääbo and his colleague Johannes Krause of the Max Plank Insitute in Germany, have discovered that whites have as much as 2 to 4% Neanderthal DNA.  Genetics researcher Adrian Briggs, stated unambiguously that the DNA of "Humans and Neandertals are 99.5 percent identical," (Digital Journal 2010)


And there is much evidence to suggest that percentage could be even more. Archaeologist and British writer Peter Frost asserts, "Neanderthal admixture in present-day Eurasians is probably a bit higher than the estimated 1 to 4%." (Unz.com 2017)


In 2012, Geneticist Spencer Wells gave a Neanderthal DNA test to 3 journalists at a UCD-San Diego conference.  WSJ's James Fallows, of Scottish ancestry, scored a stunning 5%. (The Atlantic 2013)


It's theorized that Europeans' unique DNA make-up could explain exceptional abilities in mathematics, logic, reasoning, innovation and adaption to challenging environments.

Northern Extremes

According to the NY Times Dec 2016, "gene variants in Inuit who live in Greenland... may help them adapt to the cold by promoting heat-generating body fat."  Inuits have an "evolutionary advantage" to overcome extremely cold temperatures from an unusually high mix of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

Sub-Saharan Africans

According to Harvard professor of genetics David Reich, Africa has "the greatest human diversity in genetics in the world."    Svante Pääbo on a possible archaic mix: "I think there's good reason to think that they mixed with other forms inside of Africa.  There's some indications of that in the genomes of present day Africans." (UCTV 2018


Some Western Africans are descended from the Hazda, while others originate from unknown Hominids.  Arun Durvasula and Sriram Sankararaman from the University of California in Los Angeles have described the ancestor as a "ghost species" or quite possibly Homo Naledi a "small-brained hominin" on the "African plains 250,000 years ago." (IFL Science 2018)


Peter Frost (NatGeo) suggests, about 13% of the African genome comes from these archaic "paleoafricans" who "lacked something modern humans had" putting them at a disadvantage. Frost writes this might explain the "limited capacity for symbolic thinking and social organization."


Very recent fossil finds suggest "a little-brained shadow lineage was lingering on from a much earlier period," at the same time Homo sapiens roamed the African plains.  


Dr. Lee Berger, Resident Explorer at National Geographic believes the moderns and archaics lived side-by-side and may even have interbred: "You can imagine how disruptive that might have been." 

The San Bushmen of the Kalahari

The Khoe-San of the Kalahari have separate lineage from other Africans.  Spencer Wells (PBS National Geo) has called the bushmen (Khoisan) and the related click-speaking !Kung tribe in Namibia, the last remaining original humans.  Wells says that of all the people on earth "the San are direct descendants of our oldest ancestors."  Reich agrees, "The Khoe-San are such a genetically distinctive people," (phys.org)


Some such as R.C. Camphausenhave even suggested that these Africans may indeed be the only remaining pure-breed "100 percent Homo sapiens."

Asian Continent

East Asians have roughly 5% Denisovan DNA.  According to ScienceMag.org:  "Denisovans interbred with H. sapiens... present-day human genetic makeup reflects that varied background, as in modern Melanesian populations... 4 to 6% [of DNA is] derived from Denisovans."


Additionally, some isolated populatons may have Homo Erectus DNA.  Chinese Palaeoanthropologists suggest this could explain Asians' "facial flatness" (Paleoanthropology.net). The discovery of the Dali skull in China’s Shaanxi province has led many paleontologists to conclude [that] "Homo erectus must have shared DNA with Homo sapiens" (NewsWeek 2017).


Wu Xinzhi, a palaeontologist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) in Beijing is a leading advocate of this view.  He asserts, "it's increasingly clear that many Asian materials cannot fit into the traditional narrative of human evolution" (Scientific American 2016)

Indian Ocean, Australia and Polynesia

Very recent archaeological finds suggest other previously unknown sub-species in islands off the Asian continent, including Homo Florensiensas (Hobbit man).


Australian and New Guinean aboriginal lines can be traced back to archaic humans, 60,000 to 80,000 years ago.   Svante Pääbo puts the New Guinean Denisovan percentage at fully 7%. (UCTV 2018). Pääbo and other geneticists believe they "may have [also] mated with a previously-unknown human species." (SmithsonianMag.com Sep 2016)


One particular population on isolated islands off of India is a complete mystery.  Spencer Wells, Insitome Q&A, 2017: "I'd be surprised at this point to see a [DNA mapping] result that would completely turn everything on its head. I mean, maybe the Sentinelese..."

FAQS

Are Darwin Subspecieists modern day racists?

No.  We celebrate maximum diversity for the human species.  The more diverse the genome of modern day Homo sapiens, the more chance for ultimate survival.  


"There are some races more cultured and advanced and more ennobled by education than others.  But there are no races more nobler than others" -- Alexander Humboldt, Geographer, Naturalist

Aren't we all the same? Don't modern African populations also have Neanderthal DNA?

Left-leaning paleontologists and anthropologists such as Dr. John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin, have been pushing back against recent evidence showing extreme genetic variance in modern humans.  They claim that even Africans have traces of Neanderthal DNA too.


Yet, very little archaeological evidence has been discovered to back their claim. And the few sites where some potential evidence has been discovered, are located in extreme northern tips of the African continent where later mixture with Eurasians may have occurred. Additionally, the highest concentrations amount to mere trace amounts of less than .05%. 


According to George Dvorsky, Gizmodo, 2017,  "while people from western Europe and Asia have retained about 1.8 to 2.4 percent DNA. African populations have virtually none because their ancestors did not mate with Neanderthals."


A World Map of current Neanderthal distribution show high concentrations in southern and western Europe.  The very highest Neanderthal percentage can be found in northern Italy.

Race Mixing?

Subspecieists have no quarrel with miscegenation, cross-breeding across different ethnic groups. However, preservation of modern ethno-states is essential.  Indigenous whites across Europe are now especially endangered by mass migration from North Africa and the Middle East.  


Just as important is ensuring that isolated tribes with ancient lineages in the Pacific, Indian Ocean, Africa, Oceania and other regions do not go extinct.  Some African governments for example are forcing San tribes into camps, actively discouraging their nomadic hunter, gatherer lifestyle.


Darwin Subspecieists support all efforts to preserve threatened populations like the San of the Kalahari, nearby !Kung, high mountain Tibetans, Andaman Islanders in the Indian Ocean, Aeta tribe of the Philippines, Greenland Inuits and Afrikaner whites.  Their survival is vital to maintain maximum diversity for our species.

Multi-Regional or Out of Africa?

The human evolutionary tree changes by the year.  In 2016 major paleontology news was made with the discovery of Graecopithecus in Greece and Bulgaria, suggesting human origins in Europe going back some 800,000 years. In 2015 Dr. Lee Berger uncovered Homo Naledi in caves in South Africa.


Darwin Subspecieists tend towards Multi-Regional and away from Eve Out of Africa theory. Multi-Regional is particularly popular among Chinese and Russian paleontologists such as Anatole Klyosov, (Red Ice TV interview).   


A leading proponent of Multi-Regional theory in the United States is Dr. Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan.  According to Wolpoff: "The evolutionary patterns of three different regions show that the earliest ‘modern’ humans are not Africans and do not have the complex of features that characterize the Africans of that time or any other... There is no evidence of specific admixture with Africans at any time, let alone replacement by them... There is indisputable evidence for the continuity of distinct unique combinations of skeletal features in different regions, connecting the earliest human populations with recent and living peoples."


Paleontologist Christopher Stringer who was one of the premier proponents of Eve, now concedes  (Science Direct) Multi-regional has the upper hand -- "‘Modernity’ was not a package that had a single African origin in one time, place, and population, but was a composite whose elements appeared, and sometimes disappeared, at different times and places... a recent African origin still represents the predominant (but not exclusive) mode of evolution for H. sapiens. Rather than saying ‘we are all multiregionalists trying to explain the out-of-Africa pattern’, it would be more appropriate to say ‘we are all out-of-Africanists who accept some multiregional contributions’.

Supremacy?

Thinking that one race is “superior” to another is like saying that the brown bear is “superior” to the polar bear.  The question makes no sense - each species adapts to its local environment.  That doesn’t mean that they will flourish as well in each other’s environment though. -- Canadian Libertarian philosopher, YouTube and podcast broadcaster Stefan Molyneux, Twitter Dec. 2018